History of the cold war. The cold war was fought between the U.S and the USSR primarily. From the end of ww2 in 1945 to the dissolution of the USSR in 1992 the war between communist and capitalist democracy raged. With no direct fighting between the two nation, instead the fought wars over the strap of communism never fighting face to face. Over this period, the creation of the hydrogen bomb escalated tensions between the two countries creating a red scare in the US and many eradication attempts in communist Russia. The USSR had taken many countries during world war 2 and turn them into communist satellites. This was supposed to be a barrier from Europe when Russia created the Warsaw pact.